Oval copper earrings have been "fold formed' which is a process of heating and folding the metal using a vise and a hammer. Then reheating i.e. annealing the copper and unfolding. This process is repeated for each fold The patina is created from the torch firing process which builds up oxides called fire scale. Very fine steel wool is used to polish the piece and enhance the beauty. This piece has a gorgeous dark red and copper patina. Hypoallergenic, niobium ear wires add a nice design element.